Codes

This section describes the codes to allow the reader to interpret the results.

population
methods
setting
produced

digital artefacts

physical artefact


clinical condition

Figure 5 – Code categories and sub categories applied to the search results

As a core team we were keen to be able to describe the scope of practice described by the review. We wanted to be able to identify areas not being addressed. We had to devise a way to do this that was consistent with the creative approach espoused by design.

A subset of the 1912 articles were printed out as title and abstract.

The core team met and iteratively developed a framework to describe the papers. In turn each core team member took a paper and described it to the group trying to extract the key information. This discussion narrowed down to a core set of parameters; namely the methods, settings, populations, health conditions, and outputs of each project.

Subsequently the team member would describe the project and assign child codes (under these headings), until consensus and saturation was reached. Many decisions were straightforward, for example where a project worked in a hospital to redesign service, or in the community with a mental health team. Sometimes the quality of the abstract made it more challenging to assign codes, especially around methods or identifying specifically which populations had been engaged. If there had been more resource the team would have requested full papers to gain clarity, but pragmatically (and as acknowledged in the limitations) we had to make assumptions, or in some cases record a where available ‘notspecified’ response. Links to the full papers are all included (where available from the publisher) in the bibliography. The full list of codes is listed in Figure 5.

The coding process, once established was carried out by the core team using the Dedoose (SocioCultural Research Consultants LLC. 2012)* software which allows the creation and application of such code trees to text based data, and can export data direct into Microsoft Excel to create the visualisations in the results section.


*SocioCultural Research Consultants LLC. (2012). Dedoose, Version 4.5.91, web application for managing, analyzing, and presenting qualitative and mixed method data. Los Angeles, CA: SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC.