All the top coded clinical conditions are long term conditions, representing a potential design response to the key challenges to health and social care identified in the introduction to this report. Mental Health is well represented in the documentation from the Literature Review, with 15 articles spanning Mental Health Services (e.g. Davies, To & Hyde, 2004; Navarro, B, et al, 2013), Fear Therapy (Sa, M & Carriço, L, 2012), Autism (Carrol, M, 2010; Barracova, M, 2004), and Depression (Bae, J, 2009).
Figure 6 – Instances of the Clinical Condition code per search
After this comes Oncology with 13 papers spanning Breast Cancer (e.g. Skeels, M, 2011; Lindburg, S, 2013), artefacts supporting self-care (e.g. Klasnja, P, 2010; Wolpin, S, 2014), Cervical screening (Deffett-Leger, M 2011), Patient-Experience (e.g. Bate, P & Robert, G, 2007; Tsianakas, V, et al, 2012; Boyd, H, (2012), and Paediatrics (Ruland, M, 2006). Disabilities occupy the third place with 12 papers, covering Visually Impaired persons (Wai, K, Siu, M, Wong, M, 2013; Arcia, J & Poncella, J, 2011), Cerebral Palsy (Weightman, A, 2010), Personal Health Records (Lafky, D & Horan, T, 2008), Paediatrics (e.g. Holone, H & Herstad, J, 2012a; 2012b; 2013; Alsop, M & Holt, R, 2013), and Assistive Devices (De Couvreur, L & Goossens, R, 2010).
In line with the NHS outcome measures mentioned in the previous chapter (page 10) the instances of the ‘Ageing’ code are the largest specific patient group mentioned here. The potential of older people is a constant topic of discussion in the developed world where the proportion of adults who are classed as older is constantly increasing.
The results from the literature review highlighted a large proportion of papers that omitted the Clinical Condition covered by the research – with the papers instead focussing on general application across health and social care. As an example from the Expert Network: Chamberlain, P & Lawton, R (2008) describes the development of non-Luer medical connectors using a mix of design methods, and professional clinical input (output coded as: Produced; Physical Product; Medical Product). Gottlieb (2009) documents the use of design practice to inform the development of medical packaging guidelines (output coded as: Produced; Physical Product; Proposal / Specification). These are both clearly in scope of the project but do not reference clinical condition specifically. The spread of conditions is quite striking, demonstrating designs ability to operate in many contexts in health and social care.