In accordance with the coding strategy outlined on page 16 of the Research Methods chapter, the code User-centred Design was taken to cover a variety of human-centred approaches. This ranged in degree of ‘genuine participation’ from consultation, through to collaboration.

Method Total Chart

In the abstracts from the database searches a much smaller portion of the papers omitted the Method(s) used. Arnstein (1969)* – referenced below – and the different levels of power a participant holds in the collaborative process may play a role here, since as a network of design institutions operating within a healthcare context there is a common understanding of the meaning applied to terms such as ‘collaboration’, ‘participation’ and ‘usercentred’ in a design context, and one might expect the expert designers to be more explicit in their descriptions of methods.

Figure 7 – Instances of the Method code per search
Instances of the Method code per search

Evidence Based Design was mentioned by Berger, L (2010), Becker, F (2011), Joseph, A & Hamilton, D (2008), Cole, T, Wright, C & Williams, A (2012) and Carr, V (2011), concerning an approach to: Healing Environments (Berger, L (2010); Becker, F (2011); Joseph, A & Hamilton, D (2008)), Medical Charts & Information (Cole, T, Wright, C & Williams, A (2012)) and Service innovation impacting environmental factors (Carr, V (2011)), and while there is debate about the nature of the evidence base with relation to design (with regard to the hierarchy and what is considered evidence in design) versus health, the projects listed above are all situated in domains that are closely aligned with Evidence-Based Medicine, or Evidence-Based Practice. Architecture and design for the built environment is a domain where Evidence Based Design is posited as a solution to the issues of standardisation associated with some design projects (Evans, 2010)±, and as such it is no surprise to see papers discussing the built environment mention the use of Evidence Based Design.

It is worth noting that while Human Factors, Qualitative and Quantitative (even Evidence Based Design) are not mutually exclusive to a usercentred approach (indeed, on some level they require it), the articles here were coded according to how the authors had described their work. Hence, Chan (2010) describes the project in terms of the use of Human Factors for the redesign of a clinical Radiotherapy environment, whilst also highlighting that the users were involved and ethnography incorporated into the research.

*Arnstein, S., 1969. A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), pp.216–224. Available at: [Accessed June 25, 2010].
±Evans, B., 2010. Evidence Based Design. In The World into Culture: Liber Amicorum Richard Focque (Comparative Methodologies). VUB University Press, pp. 226–421.