The number of types of outputs coded by the Expert Network is higher than from the literature review, with Exhibition (7) and Policy (1) applied to the abstracts. Some of the Not Specified applications for the produced relate to abstracts that are exploratory, or covering a multitude of projects that span contexts and therefore outputs – Torlei, K (2009) describes research into surgery at the Royal College of Art spanning a multitude of projects in the abstract, focusing on the methods, and overall methodology of the project.
Figure 10 – Instances of the Output (combined) code per search
There is a diverse range of outputs described, that illuminate the range of ways that design can produce an impact, and which serves as a useful counterpoint to assumptions that design is just about making ‘stuff’.
The Environments code covers a range from Hospital architecture and design (e.g. Chen B, & Wang G (2010); Biddiss, E, et al. (2013); Nedopil, C., Schauber, C. and Glende, S. (2013)), living spaces for people with Dementia (Van Hoof, J., et al. (2013)), to specialist outdoor spaces for people living with specific medical conditions (Wagenfeld, A., Roy-Fisher, C. And Mitchell, C. (2013)).
Service design, which is the focus of considerable interest more generally in public services, (Sangiorgi et al 2014)* is well represented. From the Literature review, health services form a significant portion of the results with these outputs covering a range of Clinical Conditions – Dementia (Williams, R (2011)), Mental Health (Davies, H, & Hyde, P (2004)), Oncology (Tsianakas, V., et al. (2012); Boyd, H., et al. (2012); Bate, P. and Robert, G. (2007)), Emergency Care (Piper, D., et al. (2012)), or with no specific Clinical Condition applied but a focus instead on the process of designing a health service (e.g. Pickles, J. P., Hide, E. H. and Maher, L. M. (2008); Wolstenholme, D., et al. (2010)).
An example of a Methodology as an output can be taken from Bustamante Navarro, R., et al. (2013), with the description of the methodology for the ‘Participatory design guide for mental health promotion in prisons’. These outputs do not necessarily have a tangible output as the focus, rather they describe the methodology developed and the results. As with the Methods code, the focus of the abstract guides the application of the methodology code.
There were a small number of Not Specified applications of the code describing the artefacts that were produced (6 in total), with the smallest portion of results for Educational Interventions. These include Paediatric training (Klaber, R. & Roland, D. (2012)), and tool to improve Handover in care settings (Rachsler, H., et al. (2012)).
*Sangiorgi, D, Prendiville, A, Ricketts A 2014 Mapping and developing Service Design Research in the UK retrieved from http://imagination.lancs.ac.uk/sites/default/files/outcome_downloads/mapping-and-devloping-sdr-in-theuk.pdf